top of page

Resources and Links

Community of Inquiry


Articles of Interest

Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2015).Grade level: Tracking online education in the United States. Babson Survey Research Group.

Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2017). Digital compass learning: Distance education enrollment report 2017. Babson Survey Research Group. reports/digtiallearningcompassenrollment2017.pdf

Al-Samarraie, H., Teng, B.K., Alzahrani, A.I., & Alalwan, N. (2018) E-learning continuance satisfaction in higher education: A unified perspective from instructors and students, Studies in Higher Education, 43(11).

Anderson, T. & Elloumi, F. (2008). Theory and practice of online learning: 2nd edition. AU Press.

Anderson, T., Rourke, L., Garrison, D.R., & Archer, W. (2001). Assessing teaching presence in a compute conferencing context. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5 (2). 1-17.

Bolliger, D. U., & Wasilik, O. (2009). Factors influencing faculty satisfaction with online teaching and learning in higher education. Distance Education, 30(1), 103-116.

Brookhart, S.M. (2013). How to create and use rubrics for formative assessment and grading. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: ASCD.

Buchanan, T., Sainter, P. & Saunders, G. (2013). Factors affecting faculty use of learning technologies: Implications for models of technology adoption. Journal of Computing in Higher Education. 25, 1–11.

Carr, S. (2000). As distance education comes of age, the challenge is keeping the students. Chronicle of Higher Education, 46(23), A39–A41.

Christensen, S.S. & Spackman, J.S. (2017). Dropout rates, student momentum, and course walls: A new tool for distance education designers. The Journal of Educators Online. 14(2).

Collins, K., Grroff, S., Mathena, C., & Kupczynski, L. (2019). Asynchronous video and the development of instructor social presence and student engagement. Turkish Journal of Distance Education, 20 (1), 53-70.

Dietrich, D. (2015). Why instructor satisfaction cannot be ignored. eLearn Magazine.   

Dixson, M. D. (2010). Creating effective student engagement in online courses: What do students find engaging? Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 10(2), 1-13.

Dufner, S. (2018), Reluctance toward online teaching. Culminating Projects in Higher Education Administration. 27.

Evans, S. (2020). Personalities of introductory course instructors and course completion: A correlational study. Journal of College Student Retention, 22(1). 2-16.

Friedman, B., Bonzo, S. & Ketcham, G. (2017). Instructor satisfaction and  

motivation in online teaching environments: A job design framework. The BRC Academy Journal of Education, 6(1), 141–56.

Gallagher, S. &  Palmer, J. 2020 The pandemic pushed universities online. The change was long overdue. Harvard Business Review.

Galusha, J. M. (1997). Barriers to learning in distance education. Interpersonal Computing and Technology: An Electronic Journal for the 21st Century, 5(3/4), 6– 14.

Garrison, D. (2009). Communities of inquiry in online learning. Encyclopedia of Distance Learning. 352-355.  

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (1999). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2), 87-105.

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 7−23.

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2010). The first decade of the community of inquiry framework: A retrospective. Internet and Higher Education, 13. 5–9[A1] 

Green, T., Alejandro, J., & Brown, A. H. (2009). The retention of experienced faculty in online distance education programs: Understanding factors that impact their involvement. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning,10(3).

Gronlund, N. E. (1998). Assessment of student achievement. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Gyurko, J., MacCormack, P., Bless. M.M., & Jodl, J. (2016). Why colleges and universities need to invest in quality teaching more than ever [White paper]. American Council on Education.

Hara, N. & Kling, R. (2000). Students’ distress with a web-based distance education course: An ethnographic study of participants' experiences. Center for Social Informatics.  

Hart, Friedman, and Hill  (2016). Online course-taking and student outcomes in California community colleges. Education Finance and Policy. 13(1),1-58

Hwangji L. (2020). Online learning: The meanings of student engagement. Education Journal.
9(3), 73-79.

Hwangji, L. (2018). Implementing comprehensive interventions to support student success in online learning. International Journal of Teaching and Education, 6(2). 87-107.

Jacob, B. A., Stange, K., & De Vlieger, P. (2017). Measuring up: Assessing instructor effectiveness in higher education. Education Next, 17(3), 68–74.

James, S., Swan, K., & Daston, C. (2016). Retention, progression, and the taking of online

courses. Online Learning, 20(2), 75-96.

Jamieson, M.V. & Shaw, J.M. (2017). Student and instructor satisfaction and engagement with blended learning in chemical engineering design [Conference presentation]. 2017 Canadian Engineering Education Association (CEEA17) Conference, Canada

Koo, T. K., & Li, M. Y. (2016). A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. Journal of chiropractic medicine, 15(2), 155–163.

Lackey, K. (2011). Faculty development: An analysis of current and effective training strategies for preparing faculty to teach online. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 14(5). ISSN 1556-3847

Lear, J. L., Ansorge, C., & Steckelberg, A. (2010). Interactivity/community process model for the online education environment. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 71–77.

Lederman, D. (2020). The shift to remote learning: The human element. Inside Higher Education.

Lederman, D. (2018). Online education ascends. Inside Higher Education.

Lieberman, M.D. (2013). Social: Why our brains are wired to connect. New York, NY: Oxford

University Press. ISBN: 0199645043

Lloyd, S. A., Byrne, M. M., & McCoy, T. S. (2012). Faculty-perceived barriers of online education. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 8(1), 1-12.

Mandernach, B. J., Barclay, J. P., Huslig, S., & Jackson, C. M. (2015). Faculty engagement as a function of instructional mode and employment status. Journal of Instructional Research, 4, 159-167.

Martin, F. & Bolliger, D.U. (2018). Engagement matters: Student perceptions on the importance of engagement strategies in the online learning environment. Online Learning. 22(1), 205-222.  

NSC Research Center. (2019). Persistence & retention. /snapshotreport35-first-year-persistence-and-retention /    

Pajares F., Miller M. D. (1994). Role of self-efficacy and self-concept beliefs in mathematical problem solving: a path analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology. 86, 193. In Doménech-Betoret, F., Abellán-Roselló, L., & Gómez-Artiga, A. (2017). Self-efficacy, satisfaction, and academic achievement: The mediator role of students' expectancy-value beliefs. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1193.  

Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (2013). Lessons from the virtual classroom: The realities of online teaching (Second ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

Pascarella, E.T., Seifert, T.A., & Whitt, E.J. (2008). Effective instruction and college student persistence: Some new evidence. New Directions for Teaching and Learning 115. 55–70.

Putulowski, J., Crosby, R. (2019). Effect of personalized instructor-student email and text messages on online students’ perceived course quality, social integration with faculty and institutional commitment. Journal of College Student Retention, 21(2), 184-201. 

Rebeor, S., Rosser-Majors, M., McMahon, C., Anderson, S. (April, 2019). Social, cognitive, & teaching presence: Impact on faculty and AU’s diverse student body. TCC Worldwide Online Conference.

Rosser-Majors, M., Rebeor, S., McMahon, C., & Anderson, S., (2020). Instructor presence training: Sustainable practices supporting student retention and success. Presented for the Teaching and Learning Conference, Ashford University (virtual).

Rosser-Majors, M., Rebeor, S., McMahon, C., & Anderson, S., (2021). Applying online instructor presence amidst changing times. IGI Global.

Rosser-Majors, M., Rebeor, S., McMahon, C., Anderson, S., Harper, Y., Sliwinski, L. (June, 2019). Effective instruction in virtual higher education: Ensuring cognitive, social and teaching presence. International Conference on Education and New Developments. Porto, Portugal.

Saroyana, A. & Trigwell, K. (2015). Higher education teachers’ professional learning: Process and outcome [Snapshot report]. Studies in Educational Evaluation. 46, 92–101.

Seaman, J. (2009). Online learning as a strategic asset: Volume II: The paradox of faculty voices: Views and experiences with online learning. Babson Survey Research Group.

Seaton, J. X., & Schwier, R. (2014). An explanatory case study of online instructors: Factors associated with instructor engagement. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education, 29(1), 1-16.

Smalley, A. (2020) Higher education responses to coronavirus (COVID-19). National Conference of State Legislatures.

Smith, B. (2010). E-learning technologies: A comparative study of adult learners enrolled on blended and online campuses engaging in a virtual classroom [Doctoral dissertation].

Stoessel, K., Ihme, T. A., Barbarino, M., Fisseler, B., & Stu¨rmer, S. (2015). Sociodemographic diversity and distance education: Who drops out from academic programs and why? Research in Higher Education, 56(3), 228–246.

U.S Department of Education. (2019). Digest of education statistics [Table 311.15].  

U.S. Department of Education. (2018). Digest of Education Statistics, Table 311.15: Number and percentage of students enrolled in degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by distance education participation, location of student, level of enrollment, and control and level of institution: Fall 2017 and Fall 2018.

U.S. Department of Education (2017). Digest of education statistics. [ Table 311.15].  

U.S. Department of Education. (2015). Distance education: Learning in non-traditional settings. Digest of Education Statistics.

Xu, D. & Jaggars, S. (2013). Adaptability to online learning: Differences across types of students and academic subject areas [Working Paper]. Community College Research Center


bottom of page